Holy Week Quick Glance

August 18, 2008 by  
Filed under What is Semana Santa

Semana Santa or Holy Week is one of the most important and celebrated week in Catholics around the globe. Semana Santa, Holy Week, celebrates the last days of Christ’s life here on earth. It also is the end of Lent. Semana Santa is observed with a range of celebrations, from the most solemnly religious, to a mix of pagan/Catholic, to commercial.

Each day throughout the week there are different rituals, processions through the streets of many towns some of the processions continue around the clock. Participants can be found on their knees or carrying large wooden crosses or floats depicting the last days of Christ and Virgin Mary. In addition there are masses of people observing the event, prayer meetings, and thousands of devout Catholics doing homage. Semana Santa begins on Domingo de Ramos (Palm Sunday) through Jueves Santo (Maundy Thursday) and Viernes Santo (Good Friday, culminating in Pascua or Domingo de Resurrección (Easter Sunday). 

Ritual celebration of Semana Santa in Antigua

April 8, 2008 by  
Filed under What is Semana Santa

(1) Antigua, the first capital of Guatemala, is renowned for the fervor and beauty surrounding the ritual celebration of Semana Santa, or Holy Week.  Historically, Catholicism had a strong impact here, and a prolific number of churches were built in the Colonial period; however, many of them were destroyed in the devastating earthquake of 1773. (2) Nonetheless, Antigua, with its remaining Colonial architecture and breathtaking views of the surrounding volcanoes, serves as a stunning backdrop for Semana Santa where every year, as the first full moon of the Spring Equinox approaches, Christ’s last days are played out in elaborate rites. (3) The historical drama, also called the Passion, is faithfully reenacted from Christ’s condemnation, to his carrying of the cross through the streets, to his death and subsequent resurrection on Easter Sunday morning, symbolizing the renewal of life through death.

This Catholic ceremony, the most loved and widespread in Latin America, was imported from Spain during the time of the conquistadors.  Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries were sent over to Guatemala and other newly formed colonies in the New World to convert the indigenous population; the end result was a people who practice a unique religion based on both Catholic and native traditions. (4) In Guatemala, the twenty Maya-speaking groups that make up half of the population have indeed been Christianized, but many keep to their old religious practices, and devotion to the Catholic saints often incorporates elements of their former deities and traditions.

Aspects of the Semana Santa, as it is celebrated in Guatemala, are reflective of these pre-columbian roots, creating a ritual that is truly hybrid.  It has been said, they are Christians

1Egla Morales Blouin, Rites of Regeneration. Américas 44, no. 2 (1992), p. 18.

 


in the churches and pagans in the fields, where they humbly apologize to the earth for disfiguring its face with their cornfields, or to the animals they may hunt out of need.2                              (5) Semana Santa begins on the morning of Palm Sunday, when a costumed

impersonator of Christ proceeds on muleback along the cobblestone streets — symbolizing his entry into Jerusalem. (6) In the afternoon, a wooden figure of Christ is taken from the church of La Merced, raised upon a heavy platform or anda, and carried by eighty men who have paid for the privilege.  These men are cofrades, or members of a brotherhood, la cofradía, which revolves around the various saints.

(7) The cofrades, or hermanos as they are sometimes called, are in charge of financing and arranging community celebrations, such as Semana Santa.  They are directly responsible for the care of the saints and the carrying out of proper devotions, such as mass, procuring stocks of candles, incense and clothing for the saints, and other tasks.  Social recognition is a large part of this religious brotherhood, and the location of individuals along the andas, with the most important in the front and the least in the back, is a direct expression of their rank.

The carrying of the andas, a physically demanding task, can be traced to Spain, where the cofradía traditionally hired a crew, or costaleros, to carry the platforms for pay.3  Symbols often used to decorate the andas include feathers, which allude to the pre­conquest dress, and

mirrors, which were brought by the Spaniards at the time of the conquest.4

 

 

 

2Ibid., p. 16.

3T. Mitchell.  Passional Culture: Emotion, Religion, and, Society in Southern Spain.  Philadelphia:

University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

4Kay B. Warren.  The Symbolism of Subordination: Indian Identity in a Guatemalan Town.  Austin:

University of Texas Press, 1947. p. 63.           

 

 


(8) On Holy Thursday the cofrade wear purple, a symbol of mourning, penance, and the blood of Christ.  Here Christ is depicted at the moment of his Flagellation, before the carrying of the cross.  To mock Christ’s claim to kingship, the Romans dressed him in purple rags (the color then worn by royalty) as he carried the cross through the streets.  The Arab-like headdress and the staffs carried are also biblical references.  Note the aureole surrounding Christ’s head, a symbol of divinity and supreme power which is also seen on the Virgin Mary.

On Holy Tuesday through Holy Thursday the image of Christ bearing the cross rests inside the churches in front of the altars and is available for devoted worship and vigils, called velaciones, until 11 p.m. (9 & 10)  In other areas of Guatemala, particularly in the highlands, a Judas figure, sometimes called Maximón or San Simón, is also displayed for worship.  The effigy is usually dismembered, hung and burned as part of the Holy Week festivities.

(11) As seen in the interior of San Francisco, the faithful pay homage to the images by placing beautiful huertos, literally a garden patch, in front of the altars.  These are constructed with the ripest, most perfect fruit, carefully prepared breads, grains, corn and tamales, and placed on petates, or woven reed mats, surrounding colorful sawdust and flower petal carpets, known as alfombras.  In some areas of Guatemala, the process of choosing and transporting the fruits and flowers to be offered in the huerto is just as significant as the final creation.  In Atitlán, alguaciles, the men in charge of this task, travel every Palm Sunday to the coast for the carrizo flower.  They carry the blossoms back in specially constructed cases which keep them fresh and uncrushed.  About thirty men are assigned to the collection of the fruit, and they leave on Holy Wednesday to retrieve it from the fincas, or farms, where it was selected weeks before for its color, size and perfection.  It is then cut with solemnity to be part of the huertos or


alfombras (12).5

(13 & 14) Groups of local citizens in a communal labor of spiritual devotion often

spend all of Holy Thursday and into the pre-dawn hours of Holy Friday painstakingly

 creating the alfombras in the streets.  The elaborate flower and sawdust carpets generally combine Mayan and Catholic symbols, and like the huertos, can incorporate a variety of items such as pine boughs and food, (15) as you see here in an alfombra which is made of

pine, corn, eggs, flowers, corn meal and other items.  The letters are the first three of Jesus’ name in Greek.6  The symbolism of many of the sacrificial food items can be traced to pre-columbian tradition where tamales, maize, breads and other foods were offered, as well as to Christian theology where, for example, the egg is a symbol of hope and resurrection.7  Similarly, pine boughs and torches, incense, feathers, paper, and other items, still seen today in Mesoamerica, were once sacrificed before the temples dedicated to the gods.8

It may be that the tradition of processional carpets was imported from Spain during the time of the conquistadors, when Catholicism was brought to the Americas, and today alfombras are still created in Spain, the Canary Islands, parts of Italy, El Salvador and Mexico.  Another theory is that the early inhabitants of the Canary Islands were indirectly responsible for spreading this tradition, for the two cultures had contact through trade.9  However, it is not really known how the tradition of ceremonial carpets came to Guatemala, and to further complicate the matter, the construction methods of Guatemalan alfombras are not seen in any of the other countries that

5Erna Fergusson.  Guatemala.  New York and London: Alfred A. Knopf, 1938, p. 242.

6Ihsus or lhcuc is Jesus’ name in Greek.

7George Ferguson.  Signs and Symbols in Christian Art.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1961, p. 18.

8For more information on the pre-columbian tradition of sacrificial offerings, see Fray Diego Durán.  Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar.  Trans. by F. Horcasitas and D. Heyden.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971, pp. 106-121. 9Laura D. Schultz, Carpets of Sawdust and Flowers: The Alfombras of Guatemala. Fiberarts 19 (September-October 1992), p.48.                 

 


practice this art form.10  

(16 & 17) The most well-known method of alfombra-making in Guatemala involves cutting a molde, or stencil, from cardboard or plywood, on which a design has already been drafted.  Indeed, men are employed year round cutting intricate stencils.  Acerrín, or sawdust, is purchased and collected from local mills over the entire year and stored in large cloth bags.  Some of it is treated with commercial dyes in order to yield the brilliant colors.

Motifs come from varied sources. (18) A favorite is the butterfly, which was an important pre-columbian symbol and in Christian theology is representative of the Resurrection of Christ.  This meaning is derived from the three stages of its life, from caterpillar to larva to butterfly, analogous to life, death, and resurrection. (19) Depictions of the characters and events from the Popol Vuh, the Quiche Maya story of creation can also be found, but in general, the rugs consist of simple designs of birds (“winged souls”), angels, flowers, baskets, and other patterns.  These images are often traded or copied, and the same design may appear in more than one carpet. (20) Religious phrases are frequently lettered onto the alfombras as well, as seen here with the ten commandments decorating an alfombra.  In the middle, a loaf of bread is symbolic of the means of sustaining life.  In the Old Testament bread was the symbol of God’s providence, care and nurturing.11

The colors used are also important in Christian theology and sometimes pre­-columbian religion.  Black, to the Christians and Mesoamericans, is symbolic of death and the underworld.  Blue is the color of the sky, water, and heaven.  Green is the color of vegetation and spring,

 

 

10Ibid.

11Ferguson, ibid, p. 172.

 


while red is often associated with martyred saints in Christianity and the blood of Christ.  White represents purity and innocence and brown represents spiritual death.  Brown has been adopted by many religious orders such as the Franciscans who, as mentioned, were some of the first missionaries present in Guatemala.12

(21) On the night before Holy Friday, workers construct large wooden frames in the streets, generally measuring 10 x 30 feet.  They are filled with an even layer of undyed

sawdust from one to three inches thick.  The stone streets of Antigua require deep beds of sawdust to fill in around the stones and obtain a flat working surface.  Thin layers of colored sawdust might be spread over the base and stencils placed above while more sawdust is pressed through the open spaces. (22) When the stencils are lifted, a raised design remains.  After completion, the workers periodically sprinkle water over the carpets to keep the flowers from wilting and prevent materials from blowing away.

The alfombras are created both as a way to pay homage to Christ and as evidence of their devotion.  They can be found in front of homes, churches, and along the processional paths where they are trampled, symbolizing the transience of life. (23) This alfombra from the front of San Cristóbal has been destroyed by the procession.  Alfombras are created with great piety but are also an excellent excuse for social interaction and gossip.  Certain families have a long-standing reputation for their unique, intricate alfombras, and competition amongst creators keeps the tradition alive.  Lastly, the alfombras can be a conspicuous display of a patron’s wealth in the guise of religious devotion.

(24) Around six in the morning on Holy Friday processions begin to form near several

 

12Fcrguson, ibid, pp. 151-153. For an analysis of the Mayan meaning behind the use of colors, see Blouin, ibid, p. 18.           

 


of the churches.  Sixty to eighty men carry each anda which bear various images of Christ and other characters important in the Passion.  Emerging from San Cristóbal is an anda carrying the gates of heaven.  Each will thread through the streets until midnight, mimicking Christ’s journey down the road to Calvary, the place he was crucified.

(25) The procession is accompanied by a somber death march made by the mournful tune of trumpets and wooden ratchet noisemakers, and escorted by throngs of worshipers and pilgrims, their feet rending the alfombras as they proceed.  Copal, traditionally used in Mesoamerica, is burnt in blessing of the procession as several men swing censors filled with the resinous incense. (26 & 27) The women are responsible for transporting the anda which carries the Virgin, who here emerges from the church of La Merced.

(28) An important role is that of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor who believed that

Christ was not guilty, but who, nonetheless, condemned him to death.  He walks through the town wearing a banner which proclaims his innocence.

(29) Symbols of Christ’s Flagellation, such as the pillar to which he was bound during his whipping, as well as stations of the cross from the Gospel of John, are placed at strategic points along the processional routes, often draped with brightly dyed cloth, adorned with flowers and pictures of Christ.  These trace Christ’s path and final words as he carries the cross.

(30) Here again the stations of the cross are written on large signs and carried by a group of cofrades outside of Colegio de Cristo.  They are in black with their faces covered signifying their sorrow; they wear large conical hats in a tradition that dates back to Colonial Spain.  The rope that is tied to the shafts symbolizes the betrayal of Jesus by Judas and is also used as a cord worn around the waist, alluding to the rope with which Christ was bound to the pillar during the Flagellation. (31) It symbolizes chastity, temperance, and self-restraint.


(32) St. Veronica is also carried in the procession, displaying her attribute of the veil depicting the head of Christ.  This refers to a biblical passage which relates that Veronica dried the sweat from the face of Christ on his way to Calvary with her veil, and the imprint of his face remained on it.

(33) The Roman soldiers flanking the andas are representative of the executioners of Christ, and these soldados romanos enjoy a unique popularity among the children.  Their mission is to accompany the altars of the dead or dying Christ, and while their costumes are worn with dignity and arrogance, they are meant to provoke snickers and poke fun with blatant satire, such as the painted broom end representing the Roman helmet. (34) They, too, are adorned with symbols of the Resurrection, like the eagle crest on their helmets and wrists.  Christian belief of old was that the eagle, unlike other birds, periodically renewed itself by flying near the sun and then plunging into the water.13  In addition, they carry lances, another symbol of the Passion, as they were used to pierce the side of Christ on the Cross.

(35) Situated several hundred yards behind the anda bearing Christ comes another with the image of the Virgin.  Women, dressed in black with their heads and shoulders traditionally covered with handkerchiefs to signify mourning, carry her image and join in her sorrow that her son has died.  It is common to see groups of women clinging to the rear in completion of some promise made to the Virgin.

(36) Thousands of spectators line the sidewalks during the day and night, each making the sign of the cross to bless the figures as they pass.  After the processions have passed over the alfombras, a mad scramble ensues as people scrape up handfuls of the scattered sawdust and flowers.  These materials are considered blessed as Christ has “walked” over them, and are carried back as blessings for family and home.14

13George Ferguson, ibid, p. 17.


 

(37) Tradition requires that the procession stop in front of the city jail where one or two lucky prisoners are chosen to join the spiritual quest by shouldering crosses heavy with chains before gaining their freedom.  This custom dates back to the seventeenth century when legend says that all the cell doors of the old prison miraculously opened as the procession passed by.  On Holy Thursday, the capturing of these prisoners is done with much gusto and role playing, one side impersonating the killers of Christ and the other Jesus figures.  They run through the town until they discover Jesus, who is then dragged to an improvised jail in the corner of the plaza, symbolizing Christ’s capture.

(38) The last anda to proceed carries the recumbent Christ in his coffin.  Onlookers

everywhere weep for his death, the loss of his life symbolic of the loss they suffered in their

 own.  In this way the reenactment of the Passion serves as a catalyst for their own experiences, a vehicle for the expression of personal beliefs and ritual.  It is for this reason that his subsequent Resurrection on Easter Sunday is great cause for celebration, as it mirrors and strengthens their belief in the renewal of life through birth, death, and rebirth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14Schultz, ibid, p. 51.


             Glossary:

All definitions represent colloquial usage and may differ regionally.

 

acerrín             =             sawdust

alfombra             =             carpet

anda                        =             a wooden platform or frame used for carrying images in processions, usually

borne on the shoulders of men

cofrade            =             a member of a cofradía

cofradía            =             Indian religious society; a group of laymen dedicated to the veneration of a

particular saint

copal                        =             tree resin used for incense

costaleros       =        crew of laborers in Spain traditionally hired by the cofradía to carry the andas

costumbre            =             the traditional way of doing things handed down from the ancestors

finca                         =             farm or plantation

hermanos            =             members of a cofradía

huertos             =    literally a “garden patch,” but also refers to the offerings of perishables before                                     the altars during religious ceremony

ladinos             =             the persons in society who carry and transmit the Spanish-derived national

culture

molde             =             stencil

petate             =             a woven palm mat

Popol Vuh             =             the Quiche Maya story of creation

posh                        =             an alcoholic beverage made from cane, also known as guaro; consumed                                     nationally; socially important in religious ceremonies and contractual                                                 arrangements

rosario             =            rosary

tamales         =     thick cakes of ground corn stuffed with seasoned fillings–wrapped in banana leaves before boiling

velaciones             =             vigils

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


         Slide List

 

1.            Map of Antigua

2.          City of Antigua

3.          Anda carried in procession

4.          Indigenous Maya

5.          Christ impersonator on muleback — Palm Sunday

6.          Anda bearers showing rank

7.          Close-up of a cofrade carrying the anda

8.          Christ at the Column, borne by bearers in purple

9.                 Devoted worship of Judas figure

10.               Interior of church with image of Judas

11.               Huertos in front of altar

12.              Fresh cut flowers being placed on an alfombra

13. The beginning of an alfombra

14. Another alfombra in its beginning stages

15. An alfombra which includes pine, corn, eggs, flowers, cornmeal, etc.

16. A stencil being filled in with sawdust

17. The image after the stencil mold has been removed

18. The butterfly image on an alfrombra

19. Images from the Popol Vuh

20.             An alfombra with the ten commandments

21.             An alfombra’s wooden frame

22.             A finished alfombra with an angel design

23.             A ruined alfombra from San Cristobal

24.             An anda emerging from San Cristobal on Holy Friday

25.             Copal being swung in front of the procession

26.             A distant shot of the Virgin emerging from La Merced

27.             Closer view of the same

28.             Pontius Pilate

29.             Station of the cross along the processional route

30.             Colegio de Cristo cofradías carrying stations of the cross

31.             La Merced procession; notice the rope belts

32.             St. Veronica being carried with veil in her hands

33.             Close up of Roman soldiers with helmets of brooms

34.             Roman soldiers with symbols of the Resurrection

35.             Anda bearing the image of the Virgin

36.             Spectators watching the procession

37.             Christ in an improvised jail on the plaza

38.             An anda bearing the dead Christ

 


                  Brief Slide Descriptions

 

1.     Map of Antigua.

 

2.     View of the city of Antigua looking towards the volcano Fuego.  Notice the colonial architecture which rises above the city.

 

3.            An anda hoisted on the shoulders of cofrades holds a wooden statue of the Virgin with the             Christ child in the Quiche Maya town of Chichicastenango.  It is decorated with multi-­            colored flowers and feathers in the pre-columbian tradition.  Note the painted image of the             Virgin over her head.

 

4.            Maya women from Chichicastenango in the marketplace wearing hand-woven, brightly

colored textiles.

 

5.             On Palm Sunday a costumed Christ impersonator rides through the streets on

muleback, reenacting Christ’s entry into Jerusalem.

 

6.            A large anda bearing an image of Christ Carrying the Cross is part of the Holy Week

procession.  The cofrades, who paid for the privilege of carrying the platform, are in

charge of arranging Semana Santa and other religious celebrations. Their placement along             the anda reflects their rank in the religious brotherhood, or cofradía.

 

7.     Close-up of the cofrades in front of the anda.

 

8.     This small anda portrays Christ at the Column, before the carrying of the cross.  His

bearers wear purple signifying mourning, penance, and the blood of Christ.

 

9. Devoted worship of Judas figure placed in front of an altar at Santiago Atitlán.  Judas figures are particularly common in highland areas of Guatemala and are dismembered and hung as part of the Holy Week festivities.  Votive candles, fruits and devotional items are laid in front of the image.

 

10.             From San Andrés Ixtapa another Judas figure dressed as a ladino, or wealthy Guatemalan.              The religious images take many forms, depending on the area.  Note the striking difference             of costume.

 

11.                  A huerto, or garden patch in front of an altar.  These are placed in front of the religious images and are constructed with ripe fruit and food surrounding sawdust carpets, called             alfombras, which are a central part of the ritual surrounding Semana Santa.

 

12.             Fresh cut flowers placed on an alfombra.  Materials such as these freshly cut flowers

are gathered to be part of the processional carpets.  The patterns can be extremely

elaborate and groups of local citizens often spend all of Holy Thursday and into the pre-­           

dawn hours of Holy Friday painstakingly creating the alfombras.

 


13.             The beginning of an alfombra.  Pine needles have been scattered to form the base of

this alfombra.

 

14.            Another alfombra in its beginning stages.  Here corn, cornmeal and other items have been             incorporated into the design.  The symbolism of many of the sacrificial food items can be             traced to pre-columbian tradition where tamales, maize, bread and other foods were offered to the gods.

 

15.             An alfombra includes flowers, eggs, etc., and the letters spell JHS, the first three of

Jesus’ name in Greek.  The egg is a symbol of hope and resurrection.

 

16.            A stencil is filled in with sawdust.  The most well-known method of alfombra making in Guatemala involves cutting stencils, placing them on the alfrombras, and filling the empty areas with colored sawdust to create a pattern.

 

17.    The image after the stencil mold has been removed.

 

18.    The butterfly image on an alfombra.  The butterfly is an important religious symbol

and represents the Resurrection of Christ.  This meaning is derived from the three stages

of its life, from caterpillar to larva to butterfly, analogous to life, death and resurrection.

 

19.                   Images from the Popol Vuh, the Quiche Maya creation myth.

 

20.             An alfombra with another popular theme, the ten commandments.  Religious phrases are frequently lettered onto the carpets.  In the middle, a loaf of bread is symbolic of the means of sustaining life.

 

21.            The beginning of an alfombra with the wooden frame erected over the area where the carpet will lay.  The frame allows the creator room to work and is removed once the carpet is completed.

 

22.    A finished alfombra with an angel design.

 

23.    A ruined alfombra from San Cristóbal.  The alfombras are trampled during the Holy

Week processions — symbolic of the transience of life.

 

24.            An anda emerging from San Cristóbal on Holy Friday.  The andas and the wooden             figures which they carry are stored inside the churches year round, to be taken out for the annual celebration.

 

25.             Copal is swung in front of the procession.  This incense is burnt in blessing of the

procession.

 

26.             A distant shot of the Virgin emerging from the church of La Merced.  The women are

responsible for the transporting of the Virgin.

 


27.            Closer view of the same.

 

28.            An impersonator of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor who believed that \Christ was not             guilty, but who nonetheless, condemned him to death.  Here he is walking through the town wearing a banner proclaiming his innocence.

 

29.            One of the stations of the cross.  These and other symbols of Christ’s Flagellation, such as             the pillar to which he was bound during his whipping, are placed at strategic

points along the processional route.

 

30.             Colegio de Cristo cofrades carrying stations of the cross.  They are dressed in the black of             mourning.  The traditional conical hats date back to Colonial Spain and the

rope tied to the shafts and around their waists allude to the rope which bound Christ to the pillar when he was flogged.  The rope symbolizes chastity, temperance, and self-restraint.

 

31.    La Merced procession; again notice the rope belts.

 

32.    St. Veronica on anda with veil in her hands.  The veil is St. Veronica’s attribute, and

refers to a biblical passage which relates that she dried the sweat of Christ’s face with her

veil, leaving his imprint upon it.

 

33.            Close up of Roman soldiers with helmets of brooms.  These soldados romanos             accompany the altars of the dead or dying Christ.  Their costumes are meant to poke fun             with blatant historical satire, the painted broom end representing the Roman helmet.

 

34.             Roman soldiers with symbols of the Resurrection.  The eagle crest on their helmets

and wrists and their lances are traditional symbols of the Passion.

 

35.  Anda bearing the image of the Virgin.  The Virgin, flanked by guardian angels, and

women wear the black of mourning.

 

36.    Spectators watching the procession.  Thousands of people line the sidewalks to watch the procession as it passes and scramble to gather handfuls of scattered sawdust

 and flowers from the ruined alfombras.

 

37.             Christ in an improvised jail on the side of a cathedral.  The jailing of Christ is an important part of the Holy Week, symbolizing Christ’s capture.  On Holy Thursday, one group impersonates the killers of Christ and others portray Jesus figures.  They run through the town until the Jesus figures are discovered, who are then dragged to the improvised jail in the corner of the plaza.

 

 38.            An anda bearing the dead Christ.  This, the last anda of Holy Week, carries Christ in his             coffin.

It passes by with much solemnity as onlookers weep for his death, the loss of his life symbolic of the renewal of life through birth, death, and rebirth.


             Bibliography

 

Alvarez Revalo, Miguel.  De Ramos a Pascua.  Guatemala, C. A.: Fondo Editorial La Luz,

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Austerberry, David.  Celebrating the Holy Week: a guide for priests and people.

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Cancian, Frank.  Political and Religious Organizations. Handbook of Middle American

Indians 6 (1967).  Austin: University of Texas Press, pp. 283-298.

 

Clement, Clara Erskine.  A Handbook of Christian Symbols and Stories of the Saints.

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Damen, Frans and E. Judd Zanon, eds.  Cristo Crucificado en los Pueblos de América Latina: Antología de la Religión Popular.  Quito: Instituto de Pastoral Andina, 1992.

 

Durán, Fray Diego.  Book of  the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar.  Trans. by F.

Horcasitas and D. Heyden.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.

 

Ferguson, George.  Signs & Symbols in Christian Art.  New York: Oxford University

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Fergusson, Erna.  Guatemala.  New York and London: Alfred A. Knopf, 1938.

 

Foster, George M.  Culture and Conquest: America’s Spanish Heritage.  Chicago: Viking

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Gutiérrez Serrano, Federico.  Semana Santa en Córdoba. Madrid: Editorial Alpuerto,

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Holleran, Mary P.  Church and State in Guatemala.  New York: Columbia University

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Holy Week in Tomé: A New Mexico Passion Play.  Trans. by Thomas J. Steele, S. J. Santa

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Levine, Daniel H., ed.  Churches and Politics in Latin America.  Beverly Hills and London:

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Lujan Muñoz, Luis.  Semana Santa Tradicional en Guatemala.  Vol. 2. Guatemala:

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Mitchell, Timothy.  Passional Culture: Emotion, Religion, and Society in Southern Spain.

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Moore, Richard E.  Historical Dictionary of Guatemala, Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow

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Morales Blouin, Egla.  Rites of Regeneration. Americas 44, no. 2 (March-April 1992),

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Nash, June.  Judas Transformed. Natural History 103, no. 3 (March 1994), pp. 46-53.

 

______. The Passion Play in Maya Indian Communities. Comparative Studies in Society

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Quintanilla Meza, Carlos Humberto.  Semana Santa en la Antigua, Guatemala.

Guatemala, C.A.: Librería Marquense, 1989.

 

Ramírez Samayoa, Dr. Gerardo.  Semana Santa en Guatemala: días de muerte y gloria:

un acercamiento a los Cristos de Pasión.  Vol. 2. Guatemala: Cuaresma, 1992.

 

Reina, Rubén.  The Law of the Saints: A Pokoman Pueblo and Its Community Culture.

Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966.

 

_____. Religion in Western Guatemala: A Product of Acculturation. American

Anthropologist 43 (1941), pp. 62-76.

 

Russell, Kenneth and Majorie.  Easter in Guatemala.  Video recording.  Huntsville, Texas:

Educational Video Network, 1991. (U of Oshkosh library)

 

Schiller, Gertrud.  Iconography of Christian Art.  Vol. 2, The Passion of Jesus Christ.   Trans.             by J. Seligman.  Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1968.

 

Schultz, Laura D.  Carpets of Sawdust and Flowers: The Alfombras of Guatemala. Fiber

Arts 19 (September-October 1992), pp. 48-5 1.

 

Seigel, Morris.  Horns, Tails, and Easter Sport: A Study of a Stereotype. Social Forces

20 (1942), pp. 382-386.

 

Thurston, Herbert.  Lent and Holy Week.  London: Longmans, Green, 1904.

 

Whetten, Nathan N.  Guatemala: The Land and the People.  New Haven: Yale University

Press, 1961.

 

The Passion of Christ reiterates that there is no creation or salvation without sacrifice, for life must be

fed by life.  Easter will be the recognition of its divine, imperishable nature. Then, when He rises like a

newborn sun, it is fitting to celebrate life’s precious gifts with the flowers, fruits, and music that brings

sustenance, health, and joy.1

 

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